A site is the location were a settlement resides on, e.g along a hill, mountain, river side, industries e.t.c. A situation refers to the site's features which functions the settlement.
The site and situation have to be considered before a settlement is established. Settlements are rarely built on a random location. Analysis of the location has to be considered before people can settle in
Factors Affecting the Location of a Settlement
You must be able to expand on these points
- Rain Availability; (few settlements in desert & polar regions)
- Availability of Fertile Soils
- Availability of Water Sources e.g along rivers, lakes, oasis, dams e.t.c
- Vegetation supply for firewood, building materials, livestock feed e.t.c
- Availability of Mineral Resources, e.g coal in Hwange, tin in Kamativi
- Market Availability; e.g CBD, growth point
- Availability of jobs
- Along transport routes making commuting from & to work easy.
- Defense sites; e.g hills, mountains
- Government Land reforms, restrictions e.t.c
- Close to friends & family
- Close to religious shrines
- Away from volcanic, earthquake zones.
- Away from mass movement such as slides, rockfalls, avalanches etc
- Away from areas that are prone to nuclear explosions; e.g The 1985, Chernobyl (Russia) Nuclear Explosion.
Dangers & Hazards
Despite being risky, most people especially in LEDCS like to settle near hazard prone areas. Reasons can include limited space, thus people have no choice but to settle near these areas e.g Armero town in Colombia situated along the Ruiz volcano experienced a deadly lahar in 1985 killing about 25000 people. The availability of natural resources, e.g volcanic minerals & soils, deltaic soils (e.g The Ganges Delta in Bangladesh) can make people settle in these areas.